The Witwatersrand Gold Rush was a gold rush in 1886 that led to the establishment of Johannesburg, South Africa. The Witwatersrand Gold Rush was a gold rush in 1886 that led to the establishment of Johannesburg, South Africa. Scientific studies have pointed to the fact that the "Golden Arc" which stretches from Johannesburg to Welkom was once a massive inland lake, and that silt and gold deposits from alluvial gold settled in the area to form the gold-rich deposits that South Africa is famous for. He sold £600 of gold to the Transvaal Treasury and was subsequently ordered to leave the country. The insatiable needs of the gold mining industry for cheap, unskilled black labour and the struggles of African communities to maintain a rural productive base led to the emergence of South Africa's notorious migrant labour system. Boer resentment over the large number of foreigners (Uitlanders) in the Witwatersrand led to heavy taxes and the denial of voting rights for the gold miners, and in response the Uitlanders and the British owners of the mines began to pressure the overthrow of the Boer government. www.wikipedian.net Witwatersrand Gold Rush Witwatersrand Gold Rush, https://www.wits.ac.za/media/migration/files/EGRI%20274.pdf, The South African Railways - Historical Survey (Editor George Hart, Publisher Bill Hart, Sponsored by Dorbyl Ltd, Circa 1978), Netherlands-South African Railway Company, List of mayors of Santa Clarita, California, Jalisco Cartel New Generation-Los Caballeros Templarios Cartel War, Scientific Workgroup for Rocketry and Spaceflight, World's largest gold rush ever led to the eventual. Most of the gold in the Witwatersrand is present as native gold which occures in a variety of formes and habits, such as microscopic veinlets or overgowths and is usually only visible under the microscope (the average gold particle ranges from 0.005mm to 0.5mm in diameter). It was a key part of the Mineral Revolution. The disastrous Jameson Raid followed which put Cecil Rhodes in the spotlight. Obwohl der etwa 200 Kilometer lange Höhenzug bis 1.779 Meter über dem Meeresspiegel aufragt, überragt er die umliegenden Landschaften nur um bis zu 300 Meter. The line was opened on March 17, 1890 with the first train being hauled by a 14 Tonner locomotive, became known as the "Randtram", even though it was actually a railway in every aspect and not singularly dedicated to tram traffic. : Über den Goldrausch berichtete die Bangkok Post. Boer resentment over the large number of foreigners (Uitlanders) in the Witwatersrand led to heavy taxes and the denial of voting rights for the gold miners, and in response the Uitlanders and the British owners of the mines began to pressure the overthrow of the Boer government. Breckenridge, Keith Derek (1995) An Age of Consent: law, discipline, and violence on the South African gold mines, 1910–1933. The first discovery of gold in the region is recorded as being in 1852 in the Pardekraal farm[1] by J.H. Ein Goldrausch (von englisch gold rush, wörtlich und sinngemäß also Gold-Hast bzw. There are however remarkable exceptions. These rich gold bearing reefs stretch from 40 miles east of Johannesburg to 90 miles west and even further into the province of the Free State. The Witwatersrand Gold Rush was a gold rush in 1886 that led to the establishment of Johannesburg, South Africa. It was part of the Mineral Revolution. The first recorded discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand was made by Jan Gerrit Bantjes in June 1884, on the farm Vogelstruisfontein, and was followed soon thereafter, in September, by the Struben brothers who uncovered the Confidence Reef on the farm Wilgespruit, near present-day Roodepoort. Harrison declared his claim with the then-government of the Suid Afrikaanse Republiek (ZAR), and the area was pronounced open. [3], Explorer and prospector Jan Gerrit Bantjes [af] (1840-1914) was the first and original discoverer of a Witwatersrand gold reef in June 1884 having prospected the area since the early 1880s, as well as co-operating the Kromdraai Gold Mine in 1883 to the NW of present-day Johannesburg together with his partner Johannes Stephanus Minnaar in an area known today as "The Cradle of Humankind". There is some dispute as to the origin of the name Johannesburg and to which Johannes, a common Dutch name, the city was named after. Initially, the ZAR did not believe that the gold would last for long, and mapped out a small triangular piece of land to cram as many plots onto as possible. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Ph.D. thesis, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. Cammack, Diana (1990) "The Rand at War: the Witwatersrand and the Anglo-Boer war 1899–1902. Contribute. [citation needed], News of gold spread rapidly and reached Cecil Rhodes in Kimberley. ", "Restoring of one of Parktown's Greatest Mansions | The Heritage Portal", South African Mines of Witwatersrand (Images), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Witwatersrand_Gold_Rush&oldid=992998353, Wikipedia articles with style issues from February 2018, Articles needing additional references from September 2012, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, World's largest gold rush ever led to the eventual, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 06:41. [6], Within 10 years, the town was already the largest in South Africa, outstripping the growth of Cape Town, which was more than 200 years older. One consequence of the gold rush was the construction of the first railway lines in this part of Africa. Witwatersrand Gold Rush The Witwatersrand Gold Rush was a gold rush in 1886 that led to the establishment of Johannesburg, South Africa. Rhodes purchased the first batch of Witwatersrand gold from Bantjes for £3000. [7][8][9][10], The discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand also created a super wealthy class of miners and industrialists known as Randlords. In a matter of only 10 years, the city grew to 100.000 inhabitants. It was a key part of the Mineral Revolution. This move was one of the factors leading to the Anglo Boer War of 1899-1902. Das Witwatersrand Gold Rushwar ein Goldrauschim Jahr 1886, dass zur Errichtung führt Johannesburg, Südafrika. This only agitated the miners and gave the British another reason to make a grab for the gold fields and take the lot for themselves. The Witwatersrand Gold Rush was a gold rush in 1886 that led to the establishment of Johannesburg, South Africa. But it was not until 1886 that the massive wealth of the Witwatersrand would be uncovered. There had always been rumours of a modern-day "El Dorado" in the folklore of the native tribes that roamed the plains of the South African highveld and in that of the gold miners who had come from all over the world to seek out their fortunes on the alluvial mines of Barberton and Pilgrim's Rest, in what is now known as the province of Mpumalanga. The Witwatersrand Gold Rush, which began in 1886, also increased the economic development of the city in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as Lourenço Marques served as the closest seaport for the export of gold from South Africa. For a number of years all went well, but then President Paul Kruger of the South African Republic (ZAR) began getting worried so many foreigners would soon outnumber the Boers, and the first of certain "measures" were put into place. The line was opened on March 17, 1890 with the first train being hauled by a 14 Tonner locomotive, became known as the "Randtram", even though it was actually a railway in every aspect and not singularly dedicated to tram traffic. Currently, the greater Johannesburg area has just over 8 million residents, making it the largest city of South Africa. It is thought to be named after two state surveyors who were sent to choose an area for the layout of the new town, Johann Rissik and Christiaan Johannes Joubert. Gold-Ansturm; engl. There is some dispute as to the origin of the name Johannesburg and to which Johannes, a common Dutch name, the city was named after. This was the first working railway line in the Transvaal. The Jameson Raid was supported by Rhodes and led by Sir Leander Starr Jameson. Scientific studies have pointed to the fact that the "Golden Arc" which stretches from Johannesburg to Welkom was once a massive inland lake, and that silt and gold deposits from alluvial gold settled in the area to form the gold-rich deposits that South Africa is famous for. Davis, an English miner. Bantjes, whose father Jan Gerritze Bantjes had educated Kruger when he was a boy during the Great Trek, had discussions with Kruger regarding those "measures." The Witwatersrand Gold Rush was a gold rush in 1886 that led to the establishment of Johannesburg, South Africa. As a result of the rapid development of the goldfields on the Witwatersrand in the 1880s and the demand for coal by the growing industry, a concession was granted by the ZAR government to the Netherlands-South African Railway Company (NZASM) on July 20, 1888, to construct a 25 kilometres (16 mi) railway line from Johannesburg to Boksburg. [6], Within 10 years, the town was already the largest in South Africa, outstripping the growth of Cape Town, which was more than 200 years older. This purchase would be the first transaction of the newly formed company Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa. As a result of the rapid development of the goldfields on the Witwatersrand in the 1880s and the demand for coal by the growing industry, a concession was granted by the ZAR government to the Netherlands-South African Railway Company (NZASM) on July 20, 1888, to construct a 25 kilometres (16 mi) railway line from Johannesburg to Boksburg. One consequence of the gold rush was the construction of the first railway lines in this part of Africa. The Witwatersrand Gold Rush was a gold rush in 1886 that led to the establishment of Johannesburg, South Africa. It was a key part of the Mineral Revolution. News spread around the world and prospectors from Australia to California began arriving in masses and the first lanterns of a soon to be Johannesburg began flickering along dusty streets. Witwatersrand Gold Rush; Further reading. William Knight registered the first mining company on the Witwatersrand, the Witwatersrand Gold Mining Company, in September 1886. In mining terms, the Pilbara is synonymous with iron ore.It is one of the world’s biggest suppliers of seaborne ore and has played a large part in establishing the fortunes of the big miners BHP and Rio Tinto and in more recent times Andrew “Twiggy” Forrest’s Fortescue.Famously, Lang Hancock and his partner Peter Wright discovered the massive iron ore deposits later called Hope Downs in 1952, although government geologist Harr… The Jameson Raid was supported by Rhodes and led by Sir Leander Starr Jameson. However, these were minor reefs, and today the general consensus falsely holds that credit for the discovery of the main gold reef must be attributed to George Harrison, whose findings on the farm Langlaagte were made in July 1886, either through accident or systematic prospecting. This is the reason why Johannesburg's central business district streets are so narrow. His discovery is recorded in history with a monument where the original gold outcrop is believed to be located, and a park named in his honour. There were 500 men who took part in the uprising; 21 were killed and many arrested, tried and sentenced. The Witwatersrand Gold Rush was a major contributing factor of the failed Jameson Raid of 1895 to 1896, and of the outbreak of the Second Boer War in 1899. This page was last edited on 7 June 2018, at 16:28. He sold £600 of gold to the Transvaal Treasury and was subsequently ordered to leave the country. Harrison is believed to have sold his claim for less than 10 Pounds before leaving the area. Here is some history of the Witwatersrand Gold Style Ore Deposits as they related to South Africa since the arrival of the Dutch and the southernmost tip of the continent in 1652. This only agitated the miners and gave the British another reason to make a grab for the gold fields and take the lot for themselves. This discovery started the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and attracted 1000’s of early settlers. This move was one of the factors leading to the Anglo Boer War of 1899-1902. [5], It did not take long for fortune-seekers from all over the world to flock to the area, and soon what was a dusty mining village known as Ferreira's Camp was formalised into a settlement. The gold rush was reported by the Bangkok Post. It was part of the Mineral Revolution. Its intent was to overthrow the Transvaal government and turn the region into a British colony. These early diamond surface mining activity photographs were taken by Weber & Sederstrom at New Rush (Kimberley). Witwatersrand Gold Rush The Witwatersrand Gold Rush was a gold rush in 1886 that led to the establishment of Johannesburg, South Africa. The Witwatersrand Gold Rush was a gold rush in 1886 that led to the establishment of Johannesburg, South Africa. Man gliedert ihn in einen westlichen (West Rand), einen mittleren (Central Rand) um Johannesburg und einen östlichen Teil (East Rand). One of them was to place heavy taxes on the sale of dynamite to the foreigners so as to slow the momentum. There had always been rumours of a modern-day "El Dorado" in the folklore of the native tribes that roamed the plains of the South African highveld and in that of the gold miners who had come from all over the world to seek out their fortunes on the alluvial mines of Barberton and Pilgrim's Rest, in what is now known as the province of Mpumalanga. Ever since the gold rush of 1886, the Witwatersrand basin has been a major mining site. The gold rush saw massive development of Johannesburg and the Witwatersrand, and the area remains the prime metropolitan area of South Africa. Initially, the ZAR did not believe that the gold would last for long, and mapped out a small triangular piece of land to cram as many plots onto as possible. : Dawson City was the center of the Klondike gold rush in the Yukon. rush und deutsch Rausch sind falsche Freunde), seltener auch Goldfieber, ist eine Periode der verstärkten Einwanderung in ein Gebiet, in dem es entweder verwertbare Mengen Gold oder zumindest Gerüchte über solche Vorkommen gibt. The disastrous Jameson Raid followed which put Cecil Rhodes in the spotlight. For a number of years all went well, but then President Paul Kruger of the South African Republic (ZAR) began getting worried so many foreigners would soon outnumber the Boers, and the first of certain "measures" were put into place. Many Randlords built large estates and mansions on the Parktown Ridge.[11]. Towards a people's history This purchase would be the first transaction of the newly formed company Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa. Rhodes and his partner Robinson with a team of companions were curious and rode over 400 km to Bantjes' camp at Vogelstruisfontein and stayed with him for two nights near what would later become Roodepoort. This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Witwatersrand_Gold_Rush" (); it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA. Harrison declared his claim with the then-government of the Suid Afrikaanse Republiek (ZAR), and the area was pronounced open. 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